Emotions call forth a coordinated set of behavioral, experiential, and physiological response tendencies that together influence how we respond to perceived challenges and opportunities. 

(Gross 2002: 281)
Psychophysiology
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0048577201393198

Emotions are stimuli-directed, goal-related psychological phenomena with experiential, behavioral, and physiological components and that emotions are generated from appraisals of a situation’s goal congruency or misalignment. 

(Harley et al. 2019: 153)
Instructional Science
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-018-09480-z

Emotion is Dynamic

Human emotion is inclusive of experiential, behavioural and physiological components. Research methodologies within the humanities have tended to over-emphasize the experiential component through assessments derived from self-report measures and interviews. With advances in unobtrusive wearable technologies the acquisition of moment-to-moment physiological data is now available to a wider audience than ever before. Using data collected with the Empatica E4 wristband, the the Situation Specific Arousal Analyzer (SSAA) application, available for both OS X and Windows, has been designed to support non-clinical research and analysis into the physiological measurement and tracking of autonomic nervous system arousal with a focus on state specific anxiety within the context of foreign language education.

Conscious emotional experience is closely bound to changes in bodily sensations. Indeed, if one accepts the notion that consciousness is grounded in biological processes... emotional experience must, by its nature, be physiological. 

(Pace-Schott et al. 2019: 267)
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.05.002

There is also substantial agreement that emotion episodes comprise different components such as appraisal of the situation, action preparation, physiological responses, expressive behavior, and subjective feelings. 

(Scherer and Moors  2019: 721)
Annual Review of Psychology
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011854

Innovation in Foreign Language Education Anxiety Research

The data quantification and packaging of the SSAA represents innovation in accessible research methodology applicable to the study of foreign language education anxiety. SSAA data allows correlations and relationships to be analyzed with other affective variables of common interest such as motivation, achievement, personality and a willingness to communicate. Non-clinical researchers can now incorporate medical grade physiological data into their methodological repertoire and align research into foreign language education anxiety with the technological opportunities available. 

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